关于消防电梯安全使用的思考

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=”false“Priority =”69“SemiHidden =”false“UnhideWhenUsed =”false“Name =”MediumGrid3Accent6“/ w:LsdExceptionLocked =”false“Priority = “70”SemiHidden =“false”UnhideWhenUsed =“false”Name =“DarkListAccent6”/ w:LsdExceptionLocked =“false”Priority =“71 SemiHidden =”false“UnhideWhenUsed =”false“Name =”ColorfulShadingAccent6“/ w:LsdExceptionLocked = “false”Priority =“72”SemiHidden =“false”UnhideWhenUsed =“false”Name =“ColorfulListAccent6”/ w:LsdExceptionLocked =“false”Priority =“73”SemiHidden =“false”UnhideWhenUsed =“false”Name =“ColorfulGridAccent6 “/ w:LsdExceptionLocked =”false“Priority =”19“SemiHidden =”false“UnhideWhenUsed =”false“QFormat =”true“Name =”SubtleEmphasis“/ w:LsdExceptionLocked =”false“Priority =”21“SemiHidden =”假” UnhideWhenUsed =”假” QFormat =”真” NAME =” IntenseEmphasis” / W :LsdExceptionLocked =“false”Priority =“31”SemiHidden =“false”UnhideWhenUsed =“false”QFormat =“true”Name =“SubtleReference”/ w:LsdExceptionLocked =“false”Priority =“32”SemiHidden =“false”UnhideWhenUsed =“false”QFormat =“true”Name =“IntenseReference”/ w:LsdExceptionLocked =“false”Priority =“33”SemiHidden =“false”UnhideWhenUsed =“fals e”QFormat =“true”Name =“BookTitle”// * StyleDefinitions * / table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:普通表,mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0,mso-tstyle-colband-size:0,mso-style-noshow:是的,mso-style-priority :99,mso-style-parent:“”,mso-padding-alt:0cm5.4pt0cm5.4pt,mso-para-margin:0cm,mso-para-Margin-bottom:.0001pt,mso-pagination:widow-orphan ,font-size:10.5pt,mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt,font-family:“Calibri”,“sans-serif”,mso-ascii -font-family:Calibri,mso-ascii-theme-font :minor-latin,mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri,mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin,mso-bidi-font-family:“TimesNewRoman”,ms o-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi,mso-font-kerning:1.0pt,} palign =“left”style =“text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char- Indent-count :2.0“class =”MsoNoSpacing“中国高层建筑防火规范ons:公共建筑,工业建筑和高度超过32米的住宅建筑应配备消防电梯。在发生火灾时,目前的消防电梯很难发挥其应有的作用,其安全性和可靠性不是很高。有许多因素困扰着消防电梯的安全使用,主要表现在以下几个方面:palign =“left”style =“text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“MsoNoSpacing”I。影响消防电梯可靠使用的因素:palign =“left”style =“text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0”class =“MsoNoSpacing”palign =“Left” style =“text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0”clAss =“MsoNoSpacing”(1)消防电梯易受火灾伤害。消防电梯机房一般位于建筑物顶部。根据标准的要求,从机房安全的角度来看,需要将其视为一个独立的防火区。然而,事实上,由于电缆和通过墙壁的管道之间的间隙,防火门不能保持常闭。在发生火灾时,电梯的心脏设备极易受高温影响,导致瘫痪。 2.消防电梯井道不按规格独立设置。一些消防电梯和乘客电梯使用井道,它们之间没有有效的防火隔离。由于乘客电梯不具备火灾前室的要求,因此容易受到火灾损坏,从而导致邻居报价,导致消防电梯无法正常使用。 3.供应消防电梯电源的电缆一般从建筑物的强电轴排到顶部,然后电梯机房由桥架设。尽管使用了防火电缆,但仍存在一定程度的防火性能,但在建筑物发生火灾时难以永久维持正常供电。 Palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,TEXT-INDENT:21.0pt,MSO的字符缩进数:2.0” 级=” MsoNoSpacing” palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,文本缩进:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0“class =”MsoNoSpacing“(2)消防电梯容易冒烟。湖消防电梯前室没有有效的防火隔离,主要是因为前室的墙壁有洞,防火门不能保持关闭。 2.消防电梯前室的机械加压供气系统无法有效运行。通常,消防电梯的前室没有自然通风和照明,并且需要机械加压空气供应系统来防止烟雾进入。然而,由于在发生火灾时无法保证前室防火门关闭,机械正压空气供应失败,机械加压供气口的不正确放置产生涡流,活塞电梯轿厢等的影响,可能会造成有害烟雾侵入消防电梯的前室。 3.消防电梯机房与其他电梯机房之间没有有效的防火隔离。由于非消防电梯的防火和防烟要求不同,由于汽车活塞效应的影响,电梯机房很容易吸烟。发动机室吸入消防电梯井道并进入消防电梯轿厢,危及人身安全。 Palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,TEXT-INDENT:21.0pt,MSO的字符缩进数:2.0” 级=” MsoNoSpacing” palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,文本缩进:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0“class =”MsoNoSpacing“(3)消防电梯技术目前难以完全确保其安全使用。消防电梯本身没有防水功能,这是一个世界性的问题。消防电梯的控制面板没有防水功能,所有建筑物的火灾都必须用大量的水来熄火。即使根据现行规格安装保水设施,消防电梯也难以在消防过程中坚持。 2.消防电梯的控制方法尚未统一。由于该国没有统一的标准,因此有消防电梯带有特殊的灭火启动按钮,和有些必须通过专用键激活才能实现相同的功能,一些特殊按钮被激活后,汽车会自动强制到一楼。打开后,消防员可以使用内部按钮,外部楼层按钮将自动失效,并且一些消防电梯将在激活特殊按钮后使用消防电梯。汽车将无法像往常一样下降到一楼或外层。消防电梯使用要求。 3.消防电梯本身没有可靠的安全性能。目前使用的大多数消防电梯没有防坠落功能,并且车内没有紧急逃生口。造成上述问题的原因有很多。存在标准问题,技术问题以及更多设计,构造和管理问题。任何链接中的任何遗漏或断开都将影响消防电梯的可靠使用。 Palign =“left”style =“text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0”class =“MsoNoSpacing”II。提高消防电梯可靠性的几种方法对于使用,应从以下几个方面改进可靠性原则。 Palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,TEXT-INDENT:21.0pt,MSO的字符缩进数:2.0” 级=” MsoNoSpacing” palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,文本缩进:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0“class =”MsoNoSpacing“(1)修改和改进消防电梯的技术标准,提高消防电梯本身的可靠性。 1.确定消防电梯的技术标准,统一控制程序,明确消防特殊功能的优先顺序。特定于消防的开始按钮被设置为一楼的消防功能开关。 2.根据调查和相应的技术要求,可以提出消防电梯的防水问题,以逐步向防水电梯发展。 3.在电源故障时添加消防电梯的并联功能(电梯轿厢自动打开最近楼层的门),通过机械方式设置防摔功能,并在电梯顶部增加一个紧急逃生口汽车,以确保消防电梯的故障。在工作人员的帮助下,人们可以安全地逃离汽车。 Palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,TEXT-INDENT:21.0pt,MSO的字符缩进数:2.0” 级=” MsoNoSpacing” palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,文本缩进:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0“class =”MsoNoSpacing“(2)调整建筑设计的防火规范的当前要求,使消防电梯具有安全的操作环境。 1.改进消防电梯的防烟设计。目前,该规范强调消防电梯前室的正压供气,以改善前室内的气压,防止烟雾进入。由于正压供气口的位置和保持常闭防火门的难度,该方法的实际防烟效果不一定理想。通过消防电梯井的空气供应和压力的影响可能更为理想,并且防止烟雾进入前室和汽车的效果应该更加明显。 2.加强消防电梯前室的阻隔和排水能力。虽然规范已经对此有要求,但它尚未成功应用于工程中。由于大火节约了大量的水,很容易导致水流入电梯,影响使用。因此,应强调消防电梯的前室。从电梯到门必须有一定的下坡。同时,应在电梯入口处增加排水槽,水应通过电梯竖井内的专用排水管排入集水井,有效防止水进入消防电梯。 。 3.改进消防电梯电缆敷设方法。以当前方式铺设的电缆易受火灾影响,并且消防电梯电缆可以通过井道直接从底部分配到间接人体电梯室,以降低电缆着火的风险。 4.适当减少建造消防电梯的条件。因为消防电梯真的想要起作用,它们的安装要求相当高,而且城市也是如此相对高层建筑物配备了约45米的消防登山者。为降低建设成本,建议制定消防电梯标准。 32米至45米,甚至更高。 Palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,TEXT-INDENT:21.0pt,MSO的字符缩进数:2.0” 级=” MsoNoSpacing” palign =”左”的风格=” TEXT-align:left进行,文本缩进:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0“class =”MsoNoSpacing“(3)提高消防电梯的施工质量和消防电梯的运行管理。我们经常发现,由于施工和管理到位,消防电梯不能正常使用,所以一方面必须有实用有效的标准,另一方面,消防电梯的施工质量和运行管理应该增加。 Palign =“left”style =“text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0”class =“MsoNoSpacing”(4)加强消防员和紧急情况下消防电梯的使用情况逃生能力训练由于各种消防电梯的结构和消防功能的操作方法不尽相同,因此在这方面培训消防员是非常必要的,并且应该补充这一课,以确保消防人员能够在紧急情况下顺利进行。逃离生命威胁。
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